Treatment of Pain

We have all experienced pain. But despite it being one of the most common symptoms people seek medical help for, it is also one of the most misunderstood and ineffectively treated.

Part of the reason is that one person’s experience of the same painful event can be significantly different from another’s. In this article, we identify the most common types of pain and offer some suggestions on the best type of treatment. Because there is no one-size-fits-all approach.

Analgesics are the most common drugs used to treat chronic pain. The type of pain, duration, and potential risks are all factors that doctors consider when choosing a pain reliever. The majority of pain relievers work well for nociceptive (injury-related) pain, but they are less effective for neuropathic (due to damage or dysfunction to the spinal cord, brain, or nerves). Non-drug treatments can be effective for many types of chronic pain, including

In some cases, treating the disorder that is causing the pain can eliminate or reduce it. In some cases, treating the underlying disorder can reduce or eliminate pain. Even if the disorder is treated, pain relief may be required to manage pain quickly.

The drugs used to treat pain can be divided into three types:

  • Nonopioid
  • Opioids are narcotic drugs.
  • Adjuvants (drugs used to treat seizures, depression, or other conditions but which can also relieve pain)

Non Opioid pain relievers

There are many nonopioid alternatives to opioid pain relievers. These drugs are effective in treating mild to moderate pain and can also be used for severe pain. They are frequently preferred to treat pain. These drugs do not cause physical dependence or tolerance.

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Aspirin, acetaminophen, and other non-opioid analgesics are available over-the-counter (OTC). Other non-opioid pain relievers, such as ibuprofen and ketoprofen (and naproxen), are also available OTC. However, higher doses might require a prescription.

OTC pain relievers can be taken for short periods. The label should contain instructions for maximum dosage, frequency, and duration of use. If symptoms do not improve or worsen, a doctor should be consulted.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of pain relievers that are commonly prescribed. Examples include aspirin, naproxen, and ibuprofen. These drugs are used to treat mild or moderate pain. NSAIDs can reduce pain and inflammation, which often accompany pain.

NSAIDs can be taken orally. Some NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen and diclofenac (ketorolac), can be injected into a muscle or vein. Indomethacin is available as a rectal suppository. Diclofenac can also be purchased as a cream.

NSAIDs, despite their widespread use, can cause side effects. These effects can be serious.

  • Digestive tract problems: All of the NSAIDs can cause stomach irritation and digestive upset, including heartburn, nausea, indigestion and diarrhea. Peptic Ulcers and bleeding (Gastrointestinal bleeding). Coxibs, a type NSAID that inhibits COX-2 enzymes, is less likely to irritate and cause stomach bleeding than other NSAIDs. NSAIDs taken with food or accompanied by antacids can help to prevent stomach irritation. Misoprostol is a drug that can prevent stomach ulcers and irritation, but can also cause diarrhea. Proton Pump Inhibitors, such as omeprazole, or Histamine-2 (H2) Blockers, which are used for peptic ulcers and can help treat stomach problems caused by NSAIDs.
  • Bleeding Problems: All of the NSAIDs affect the platelet clotting ability (cell-like particles that are found in the blood and help to stop bleeding after blood vessels have been injured). NSAIDs can increase bleeding risk, particularly in the digestive system if they irritate stomach lining. Coxibs have a lower risk of bleeding than other NSAIDs.
  • Fluid Retention or Kidney Problems: Sometimes NSAIDs cause fluid retention and swelling. NSAIDs can also cause kidney problems, which may lead to kidney failure.
  • Risk of blood vessels and heart disorders increased: According to studies, all NSAIDs, except Aspirin, may increase the risk of blood clots, heart attacks, and strokes. Higher doses of the drug and prolonged use seem to increase the risk. Some NSAIDs are also more dangerous than others. These problems can be directly related to the drug’s effects on clotting, or indirectly due to a small increase in blood pressure that is caused by the medication.

These problems are more common in people who have taken NSAIDs long-term. These people should have regular doctor’s appointments to be checked for high blood pressure and kidney failure as well as ulcers and bleeding in the digestive system. They also need to be evaluated for their risk of stroke and heart disease. Taking NSAIDs is unlikely to lead to serious complications if taken for a short period of time.

Some groups of people are at greater risk for side effects.

  • Aged people
  • Regular drinkers of alcohol
  • People with coronary heart disease or other heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular disorders) disorders.

NSAIDs should only be taken under the supervision of a doctor by older people, people with heart failure, people with high blood pressure or kidney and liver disorders, or people who are taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs can interfere with the effectiveness of some prescription blood pressure and heart medications.