Why is Spatial Genomics Important?


While single-cell sequencing is undoubtedly a potent technique in and of itself, it ignores a crucial feature of biology: the spatial context of cells in relation to one another. The majority of tissues in the body are made up of a mix of distinct cell types organized in predetermined patterns rather than just one type of cell repeated repeatedly. A person will act differently in a metropolis than they would in a suburb or a rural location, and even individual cells of the same kind will assume distinct functions depending on where they are placed.

Each cell type supports its adjacent cells, and those cells in turn depend on communication with and input from those adjacent cells. Different sub-structures within a tissue must be correctly ordered and maintained; deviation may lead to malfunction or the development of illness. The idea of identifying cell activities, also known as “Cellular Neighborhood Analysis,” emphasises the significance of comprehending the intricate relationships in tissue biology.


The study of the full set of genetic instructions DNA provides to identify and classify cancerous tumour cells is known as spatial genomics. Since spatial genomics provide quantitative information on gene expression, it is employed to combat illness. Information on the visualisation of DNA and RNA mapping into tissue components is also provided by spatial genomics.

One of the most prevalent malignancies in the world is breast cancer. A research released in January 2020 found that of all malignancies in women, breast cancer had the greatest incidence. The research also reported that there were more than 1.6 million new instances of breast cancer per year. Early diagnostic techniques must be used as a result, and this is where specific genomes might be useful.

Why is Spatial Genomics Important?

Given that the human body is an intricate three-dimensional structure, spatial genomics is significant. A crucial component of our molecular physiology is that structure. We must explore genomics in a spatially resolved approach in order to completely comprehend it.

When we look at the human body, we see how several complex systems have been integrated and are all operating together to support healthy physiology. Three-dimensional space is where the human body is located. Correct spatial reconfigurations, both at the molecular and large scales, are necessary for the body to operate properly.

For instance, particular organs and structures are found where they are to preserve optimal physiological functioning. The molecular level reflects this. Structure determines function is one of the fundamental tenets of molecular biology. While attempting to understand physiology, it is crucial to pay attention to form and context in order to comprehend human physiology more thoroughly.

Market overview on spatial genomics market

  • According to data from Data Bridge Market Research, the global spatial genomics market, which was valued at USD 204.01 million in 2022, is projected to grow to USD 490.86 million by 2030 at a CAGR of 11.6%. The market reports compiled by Data Bridge Market Research also include in-depth expert analysis, patient epidemiology, pipeline analysis, pricing analysis, and regulatory framework. These insights on market scenarios include market value, growth rate, segmentation, geographic coverage, and major players.
  • The technology, end-user, product, and application market segments for spatial genomics are used. The expansion of these divisions will enable you to study the industries’ scarce growth segments and give users a comprehensive market overview and industry insights to aid in the identification of key market applications.

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Technology advancement

Using the ground-breaking technique of spatial transcriptomics, researchers can map the locations of all the genes active in a tissue sample. Already, this technology is producing novel findings that will be crucial in aiding researchers in their quest to better understand biological processes and illnesses. It entails extracting high-throughput information on the cell content’s hierarchical structure from tissue and cell specimens. This approach has been developed in response to the positional information on the nucleic acid content being lost by conventional genomic procedures. Due to its inherent advantages, the market has enormous potential. Moreover, quick developments in the field of genomics, including single-cell and tissue sequencing, have greatly improved spatial genomic sequencing methods. This is due to the fact that single-cell sequencing makes it possible to define complex tissues by identifying the geographical origin of cells. Also, the fourth generation of sequencing has enormous promise for the spatial genomics and transcriptomic markets. Due to the extensive availability of sequencing platforms that aid in the study of RNA architecture in tissues or cells, sequencing techniques had a significant part in spatial transcriptomics. The reading time is fast and precise thanks to sequencing technology.

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Absorption Costing MCQs with Answers Explanation Engineering ECE

What Is Absorption Costing?

Absorption costing, also known as the all-encompassing, all-inclusive, or comprehensive costing method, is a sophisticated and perplexing managerial accounting framework that attempts to incorporate all expenses that are linked to the production of a particular product. This method is highly intricate and involves a copious amount of calculations and analyses to arrive at the total cost of production.

Every minuscule expense, whether direct or indirect, such as raw materials, labor, rent, utilities, depreciation, maintenance, insurance, and every other associated cost, is taken into account to determine the total cost of the product. The complexity of this method is staggering, and it requires extensive knowledge of accounting principles, an understanding of manufacturing processes, and advanced analytical skills to execute.

However, despite its complexity, absorption costing is still widely used in the industry due to its comprehensive approach to providing an accurate picture of the cost of production. Moreover, under the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in the United States, absorption costing is an approved method for external reporting. In contrast, variable costing is prohibited, adding to the confusion and perplexity surrounding this topic.

Which of the following costs would NOT be included in the cost of goods sold calculation under absorption costing?

a) Direct materials
b) Direct labor
c) Variable manufacturing overhead
d) Fixed manufacturing overhead
Answer: c) Variable manufacturing overhead

Explanation: Under absorption costing, both fixed and variable manufacturing overhead costs are included in the cost of goods sold calculation. Direct materials and direct labor costs are also included.

When production exceeds sales, absorption costing will result in:

a) Higher net income than variable costing
b) Lower net income than variable costing
c) The same net income as variable costing
d) None of the above
Answer: a) Higher net income than variable costing

Explanation: When production exceeds sales, there will be more fixed manufacturing overhead costs that are absorbed into the cost of goods sold calculation under absorption costing. This results in a higher net income compared to variable costing, which only includes variable manufacturing costs in the cost of goods sold calculation.

Which of the following statements is true about absorption costing?

a) It is used for external reporting purposes
b) It is used for internal decision-making purposes
c) It is the same as variable costing
d) None of the above
Answer: a) It is used for external reporting purposes

Explanation: Absorption costing is required for external financial reporting purposes, such as on the income statement and in financial statements. Variable costing, on the other hand, is often used for internal decision-making purposes.

In a period of increasing production and sales, absorption costing will result in:

a) Higher net income than variable costing
b) Lower net income than variable costing
c) The same net income as variable costing
d) None of the above
Answer: c) The same net income as variable costing

Explanation: When production and sales increase, absorption costing and variable costing will result in the same net income. This is because there will be fewer fixed manufacturing overhead costs per unit under absorption costing, but there will also be more units sold.